Car battery knowledge1


Car battery knowledge1

Car battery knowledge1

electric car battery
electric car battery

Batteries are an indispensable part of automobiles and can be divided into traditional lead-acid batteries and maintenance-free batteries.

Because the battery uses lead-calcium alloy as the grid frame, the amount of water decomposition generated during charging is small, the amount of water evaporation is also low, and the shell adopts a sealed structure, and the sulfuric acid gas released is very little, so it has the advantages of not adding any liquid, the wiring pile head, and the power storage time is long compared with the traditional battery.


The structure of lead storage batteries is mainly composed of positive (negative) plates, separators, electrolytes, tank shells, connecting strips and pole piles.


It is a device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy, which belongs to DC power supply, and its functions are:

(1) When starting the engine, provide a strong starting current to the starter (generally up to 200~600A).

(2) When the generator is overloaded, it can assist the generator to supply power to the electrical equipment.

(3) When the engine is idling, power is supplied to the electrical equipment.

(4) The battery is also a large-capacity capacitor, which can protect the electrical appliances of the car.

(5) When the voltage at the generator end is higher than the electromotive force of the lead storage battery, part of the electrical energy is converted into chemical energy for storage, that is, charging.

life span

The design life of the battery is 27 months, the general family car is more provincial, and many batteries of new cars are used for 3-4 years, but after being replaced once, it is generally about 2 years to be replaced. Taxis are more expensive, and a single shuttle can be used in the early years of a year, and the double shuttle bus is about 8-10 months.

Several factors that affect the battery life are: vehicle conditions, road conditions, and driver habits

Generally, the newer the car, the more economical the battery, because the motor is easy to use and save the battery, the generator is good to use the battery can be fully charged, after the car is old, especially after the replacement of the two large motor generators, because the difference between the original and refurbished goods of these two products on the market is huge, so it is easy for the owner not to replace the original parts, and then the battery is easier to break.

Often off-road batteries are easy to break, car batteries have a technical index to indicate the anti-vibration performance of the battery! If the standard battery is not good, it often vibrates, of course, it loves to be bad.

The life of the battery is generally about two years

1: Over-discharge

2: The battery is stored for a long time (not charged during storage)

3: Cannot be charged through car engine

4: No electrolyte

5: The specific gravity of the electrolyte is too high

6: Charge under high temperature conditions

7: Contaminated by dirt (e.g. contaminated by hydrochloric acid, seawater, organic acid, etc.)

8: Add excessive current when charging the battery

9: The deformation of the electrode plate causes the positive plate and the coated plate to contact each other, resulting in a short circuit phenomenon

10: Dirt is deposited in the upper and lower parts of the plate, causing a short circuit

As long as you pay attention to avoid the above points, the service life of your battery will increase accordingly.


1. The battery will not be used for a long time, and it will slowly discharge itself until it is scrapped. Therefore, the car should be started every regular time to charge the battery. Another way is to unplug the two electrodes on the battery, pay attention to unplug the positive and negative electrode wires from the electrode column, unplug the negative wire first, or remove the connection between the negative electrode and the car chassis. Then unplug the other end with the positive sign (+), the battery has a certain service life, and it will be replaced in a certain period. The above order should also be followed when changing, but when connecting the electrode wire, the order is exactly the opposite, first connecting the positive electrode, then the negative electrode.

2. When the ammeter pointer shows that the power storage is insufficient, charge it in time. The charge of the battery can be reflected on the dashboard. Sometimes on the road found that the power is not enough, the engine stalls and cannot start, as a temporary measure, you can ask other vehicles for help, use the battery on their vehicle to start the vehicle, connect the negative and negative poles of the two batteries, and connect the positive and positive poles.

3. The density of the electrolyte should be adjusted accordingly according to different regions and different seasons according to the standards.

4. When the electrolyte is deficient, distilled water or special rehydration should be supplemented. Do not drink purified water instead. Because purified water contains a variety of trace elements, it will cause adverse effects on the battery.

5. When starting the car, the uninterrupted use of the starter causes the battery to be damaged due to excessive discharge. The correct way to use it is that the total length of each start does not exceed 5 seconds, and the interval between restarting is not less than 15 seconds. In the case of multiple starts and still not landing, the cause should be found from other aspects such as circuits, ignition coils or oil circuits.

6. When driving daily, you should always check whether the small hole on the battery cover is ventilated. If the small hole of the battery cover is blocked, the hydrogen and oxygen produced cannot be discharged, and when the electrolyte expands, the battery shell will be broken, affecting the battery life.

7. Check the positive and negative levels of the battery for signs of oxidation. Hot water can be used to water the wire connection of the battery frequently


Nickel-cadmium batteries

Nickel-cadmium battery (Ni-Cd) Voltage: 1.2V Service life: 500 times Discharge temperature: -20 degrees ~ 60 degrees Charging temperature: 0 degrees ~ 45 degrees Remarks: strong overcharge resistance.

NiMH batteries

Ni-MH battery (Ni-MH) Voltage: 1.2V Service life: 1000 times Discharge temperature: -10 degrees ~ 45 degrees Charging temperature: 10 degrees ~ 45 degrees Note: The current maximum capacity is about 2100mAh.

Lithium-ion batteries

Lithium-ion battery (Li-lon) Voltage: 3.6V Service life: 500 times Discharge temperature: -20 degrees ~ 60 degrees Charging temperature: 0 degrees ~ 45 degrees Remarks: The weight is 30%~40% lighter than nickel-metal hydride batteries, and the capacity is more than 60% higher than that of nickel-metal hydride batteries. However, it is not resistant to overcharge, if overcharge will cause the temperature to be too high and destroy the structure = > explosion.

Lithium-ion battery conductive coating coated with carbon aluminum foil:

The surface treatment of battery conductive substrates using functional coatings is a breakthrough technological innovation, and carbon coated aluminum foil/copper foil is the dispersed nano-conductive graphite and carbon coated particles, evenly and delicately coated on aluminum foil/copper foil. It provides excellent static conductivity, collects the microcurrent of the active material, which can greatly reduce the contact resistance between the positive/negative electrode material and the current collector, and can improve the adhesion between the two, which can reduce the amount of binder used, which in turn can significantly improve the overall performance of the battery.

Advantages of battery aluminum foil in lithium battery applications

Carbon coated aluminum foil is made of conductive carbon-based composite slurry and high-purity electronic aluminum foil, which is made by transfer coating process.

Second, the scope of application

Ø Power type lithium battery with fine particle active material

o Positive electrode lithium ferrous phosphate

Ø Ternary/lithium manganate with fine particles

Ø Used for supercapacitors, lithium primary batteries (lithium sub, lithium manganese, lithium iron, buckle type, etc.) to replace etched aluminum foil

Third, the performance effect on the battery/capacitor

Ø Inhibit battery polarization, reduce thermal effect, and improve rate performance;

Ø Reduce the internal resistance of the battery, and significantly reduce the dynamic internal resistance increase of the cycling process;

Ø Improve consistency and increase the cycle life of the battery;

Ø Improve the adhesion between the active substance and the current collector, and reduce the manufacturing cost of the pole piece;

Ø Protect the current collector from corrosion by electrolyte;

Ø Improve the high and low temperature performance of lithium iron phosphate batteries, and improve the processing performance of lithium iron phosphate and lithium titanate materials.

Lithium polymer battery

Lead-acid batteries

Lead-acid battery (Sealed) Voltage: 2V Service life: 200~300 times Discharge temperature: 0 degrees ~ 45 degrees Charging temperature: 0 degrees ~ 45 degrees Remarks: It is a general car battery (it is connected in series with 6 2V into 12V), the battery life without adding water is up to 10 years, but the volume and weight are the largest.

Model (Chinese standard): Take model 6-QAW-54a as an example:

(1) 6 means that it is composed of 6 single-cell batteries, each of which is 2V, that is, the rated voltage is 12V.

(2) Q indicates the use of the battery, and Q is the battery used to start the car. M is a motorcycle battery, JC is a marine battery, HK is an aviation battery, D is an electric vehicle battery, and F is a valve-regulated battery.

(3) A and W indicate the type of battery, A represents a dry-load battery, W represents a maintenance-free battery, and if not standard, it represents an ordinary battery.

(4) 54 indicates that the rated capacity of the battery is 54Ah.

(5) Corner mark A indicates the first improvement of the original product, if it is B, it indicates the second improvement, and so on.


New battery charging

Any battery has the property of self-discharge, so when the new rechargeable battery arrives in your hands, the rechargeable battery may have been self-discharging for a period of time. This is that the chemical raw materials inside the rechargeable battery have not been used for a period of time, and there is a “passivation” state, unable to fully utilize the chemical reaction and provide sufficient voltage. In this case, when using the rechargeable battery for the first time, be sure to fully charge the rechargeable battery to allow the voltage to return to the original level. In fact, if your rechargeable battery has not been used for a long time, this “passivation” phenomenon will also occur, and the situation will be more serious. It is best to carry out the process of charging and discharging the rechargeable battery 3 times, which will help the activation of the rechargeable battery. Let the chemicals inside the rechargeable battery work as well as they should (nickel-cadmium batteries). Sometimes the newly purchased rechargeable battery, when put into the charger, will stop charging before the charger is fully charged. When encountering this problem, you just need to remove the rechargeable battery from the charger and put it in the charger to continue charging. This is normal for new rechargeable batteries, not that you buy bad rechargeable batteries (nickel-metal hydride, lithium-ion batteries). Generally speaking, the charging time should not be too long, up to 12 hours is enough, if once overcharged it will cause damage to the rechargeable battery.

Charging time

Charging time (hours) = rechargeable battery capacity (mAh) / charging current (mA) * 1.5 coefficient If you use a 1600mAh rechargeable battery, the charger is charged with a current of 400mA, the charging time is: 1600/400 * 1.5 = 6 hours (note: this method is not applicable to newly purchased or long-term unused rechargeable batteries) Ni-metal hydride rechargeable batteries and lithium-ion rechargeable batteries actually have a memory effect, do not really need to discharge when used? In fact, the memory effect of nickel-metal hydride rechargeable batteries and lithium-ion rechargeable batteries is very slight, and it is not worth paying attention to. (Please note that when you see here, do not use the discharge function of the charger to discharge nickel-metal hydride rechargeable batteries and lithium-ion rechargeable batteries, especially lithium-ion rechargeable batteries, due to their own material factor, the battery itself is not allowed to withstand the forced discharge of the charger.) If you insist on discharging a lithium-ion rechargeable battery, it will eventually cause damage to the battery. In addition, if you use a nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery that needs to be discharged, then it is recommended that you, regardless of whether the battery is used frequently, it is best to charge and discharge the nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery every two or three months or so, which can ensure that the memory effect of the nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery has a minimum impact on the battery.

Common terms


The process by which a battery delivers current to an external circuit. The discharge method can be divided into constant current discharge and constant resistance discharge, and can also be divided into continuous discharge and intermittent discharge. Continuous discharge is a discharge method that continuously discharges to the termination voltage under specified discharge conditions. Intermittent discharge is a discharge method in which the battery is discharged intermittently under specified discharge conditions until the specified termination voltage. Discharge capacity: the discharge capacity or effective working time of the battery under the conditions specified in the standard. Storage life: The storage period during which the battery can still maintain the specified performance at the end of storage under specified conditions. Battery extremes: The parts of the battery that connect to the external circuitry. EMF: The difference in equilibrium potential of the two electrodes that make up the battery. It reflects the possibility of the battery doing external power.

short circuit

The positive and negative terminals of the battery are directly connected. Short-circuit current: The current that flows through the battery in an instant after a short circuit. Discharge rate: Discharge rate refers to the rate at which it is discharged, and is often expressed as “hour rate” and “magnification”. The hour rate refers to the discharge rate expressed in the discharge time (h), that is, the number of hours required to discharge the rated capacity with a certain discharge current. For example, if the rated capacity of the battery is 30 Ah and discharged at 2A current, the hour rate is 30 Ah/2 A = 15 h, and the battery is discharged at a 15-hour rate. Magnification refers to the current value output by the battery when it releases its rated capacity within a specified time, which is equal to the multiple of the rated capacity. For example, a discharge rate of 2 times means that the discharge current value is twice the capacity of the battery. If the battery capacity is 3 Ah, then the discharge current should be 2×326 Ao visible, and if the 2fold discharge rate is converted to the hour rate, it is 3 Ah/6 A = 1/2 hour rate. The hour rate and the multiplier are numerically reciprocal to each other. Depth of Discharge DOD (depth of Discharge): The percentage of the ratio of discharge capacity to rated capacity. Active material: An electrode material that can generate electrical energy by oxidation or reduction reaction when the battery is discharged.


The operation process of converting the electrical energy transmitted by the external circuit into chemical energy for storage. Charging rate: The current value required for the battery to be charged to the rated capacity within a specified time, or the time required to charge to the rated capacity at a certain current. Similar to the discharge rate, it is generally expressed in terms of magnification (several Cs) or hour rate. Constant voltage charging: A charging method that keeps the voltage at the charger terminal unchanged when charging. Constant current charging: A charging method in which the charging current remains unchanged when charging. Polarization: Polarization is the change phenomenon of battery voltage and electrode potential generated by the stationary state (current I20) to the working state (I > o). The product of voltage and current is equal to the power, and then multiplied by the battery running time is the output electric energy, so the polarization phenomenon reflects the amount of energy loss from the stationary state to the working state, so the smaller the polarization loss, the better. Common polarization phenomena include anodic polarization, cathodic polarization, ohmic polarization (resistance polarization), concentration polarization, and electrochemical polarization. The phenomenon of polarization can also be understood as a deviation from the phenomenon of equilibrium. The thermodynamic equilibrium process is closely linked to reversible phenomena. The rate of change of a reversible or equilibrium process is small, but the actual process must have a certain rate, and sometimes a very high rate. For example, Hyundai to electric cars

Polarization phenomenon

One of the requirements of the car is that there must be a high current discharge. That is, the reaction rate is required to be very large, which inevitably produces a phenomenon that deviates from the equilibrium value, that is, the polarization phenomenon. The resistance of the battery includes the resistance of the electrolyte, the resistance of the electrode material, and even the resistance caused by the attachment of reaction products (such as hydroxide precipitation on the electrode), etc., ohmic polarization refers to the polarization caused by this. Concentration polarization is the deviation of the electrode potential from the equilibrium value caused by a change in the concentration of the agent while the electrochemical reaction is in progress. Anode and cathodic polarization refers to the phenomenon that the anode and cathode potentials deviate from the rest state value after the battery enters the working state. Any electrode process contains one or more reaction particles that accept or lose electrons, and the polarization caused by this process is called electrochemical polarization.

Charge rate (C-rate): C is the first letter of Capacity, which is used to indicate the magnitude of the current when the battery is charged and discharged. For example, when the rated capacity of a rechargeable battery is 1100mAh, it means that the discharge time at 1100mAh (1C) can last for 1 hour, and if the discharge time at 200mA (0.2C) can last for 5 hours, the charge can also be calculated according to this control.

Cut-off discharge voltage: refers to the minimum operating voltage value when the battery is discharged, and the voltage drops to the minimum operating voltage value that the battery should not continue to discharge. According to different battery types and different discharge conditions, the requirements for battery capacity and life are also different, so the specified battery discharge termination voltage is also different.

Open circuit voltage OCV: When the battery is not discharged, the potential difference between the two poles of the battery is called the open circuit voltage. The open circuit voltage of the battery will vary according to the material of the positive and negative electrodes and electrolyte of the battery, if the materials of the positive and negative electrodes of the battery are exactly the same, then no matter how large the volume of the battery and how the geometry changes, its open circuit voltage is the same.

Depth of discharge DOD: During the use of the battery, the capacity released by the battery as a percentage of its rated capacity is called the depth of discharge. The depth of discharge and the charging life of the secondary battery have a deep relationship, when the deeper the discharge depth of the secondary battery, the shorter its charging life, so deep discharge should be avoided as much as possible when using.

Over discharge: If the battery exceeds the termination voltage value of the battery discharge during the discharge process, and continues to discharge, it may cause the internal pressure of the battery to rise, and the reversibility of the positive and negative active materials is damaged, so that the capacity of the battery is significantly reduced.

Overcharge: When the battery is charging, after reaching the full state, if it continues to charge, it may cause the internal voltage of the battery to rise, battery deformation, leakage, etc., and the performance of the battery will be significantly reduced and damaged.

Energy density: The amount of electricity released by the average unit volume or mass of a battery. Generally, under the same volume, the energy density of lithium-ion batteries is 2.5 times that of nickel-cadmium batteries and 1.8 times that of nickel-metal hydride batteries, so in the case of equal battery capacity, lithium-ion batteries will be smaller and lighter than nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries.

Self discharge: Whether the battery is used or not, it will cause its power loss for various reasons. If calculated in units of one month, the self-discharge of lithium-ion batteries is about 1%-2%, and the self-discharge of nickel-metal hydride batteries is about 3%-5%.

Cycle life: Under repeated charging and discharging of rechargeable batteries, the battery capacity will gradually drop to 60%-80% of the initial capacity.

Memory effect: During the battery charging and discharging process, many small bubbles will be generated on the battery plate, and over time, these bubbles will reduce the area of the battery plate and indirectly affect the capacity of the battery.


(1) The liquid level of the electrolyte should always be kept between max and min, checked once a month, and according to the drop of the liquid level, distilled water (pure water) should be appropriately supplemented, and acid should not be added.

(2) When the voltage of the battery is insufficient, the light is dim and the start is weak, the external charging should be carried out in time.

(3) To prevent the battery from overcharging or long-term power loss, overcharge will make the active material fall off, power loss will vulcanize the plate, to ensure that the regulator voltage can not be too high or too low.

(4) During use, check whether the exhaust hole is unblocked frequently to prevent battery deformation or bursting.

(5) The battery should be kept away from heat sources and open flames, and ventilation should be kept when charging and using to prevent burning and injuring people.

(6) To prevent the battery from discharging with high current for a long time, the starting time of each use should not be greater than 5 seconds, and the two consecutive start times, with an interval of 10-15 seconds in between.

(7) The battery should be installed firmly in the car to reduce vibration.

(8) Always check whether the battery connection wire is firm, all unions, must be kept in good contact to prevent sparks and cause battery explosion. The oxides and sulfates produced by the battery clips must be scraped clean and coated with petroleum jelly to prevent further rust.

(9) Frequently remove the dust and dirt on the battery cover and the spilled electrolyte, keep it clean and dry, and prevent self-discharge.

(10) The cracking of the sealing glue should be repaired in time.

(11) When the car is driving in a cold area, avoid the complete discharge of the battery to avoid freezing of the electrolyte.

Extend life

In the early stage of starting the car engine, the generator will drive the engine to power the car electrical system, and when the car engine speed reaches a certain level, it will automatically enter the charging state. Therefore, in addition to the generator providing all the power supply of the whole vehicle at start-up, the rest of the time is powered by the battery. In particular, engine starting and lighting require batteries to provide powerful power. The following 10 points will help extend the battery life of the car:

When buying a battery, see the letters on it, and all those with QA letters are dry-load batteries.

1. Shake the electrolyte well before adding it to the battery. Please wear gloves when handling and be careful not to spill electrolyte on your hands or clothing.

2. For batteries without marking lines, the electrolyte can be 10 to 15 mm higher than the plate; For batteries with two red lines, the electrolyte must not exceed the upper red line.

3. Some people think that the more electrolyte, the greater the amount of electricity, which is a wrong idea. When the car is driving at high speed, the output voltage of the generator is greater than the battery voltage, and the battery is charged. When charging, the electrolyte volume expands, and if the electrolyte is too full, it will overflow through the hole in the battery cover. The electrolyte conducts electricity, and once it flows between the positive and negative poles of the battery, a loop self-discharge will be formed. The car does not start and shortens the battery life. In this case, the electrolyte should be wiped off with cotton silk, or rinsed with boiling water.

4. When adding electrolyte, do not let other items fall into the battery. If something accidentally falls in, you must not use metal substances to fish, and use wooden rods to clamp out impurities; If iron wire or copper wire is used to fish, metal molecules will enter the battery under the corrosion of sulfuric acid to form self-discharge and damage the battery.

5. Regularly check whether the small holes on the battery cover are ventilated. If the small hole is blocked, the gas generated cannot be discharged, and the electrolyte will break the battery shell when it expands, thereby reducing the life of the battery.

6. Regularly check the liquid level height of the electrolyte, and add the electrolyte in time when the liquid level height drops.

7. If the vehicle is not used for a long time, the car should be started every 25 days and run at a medium speed for about 20 minutes. Otherwise, the car will be left for too long and it will be difficult to start.

8. When removing the battery from the car, the negative electrode should be removed first and then the positive electrode, and the opposite should be done when installing. When charging, be sure to unscrew the battery cover, and do not use an open flame to approach the battery port being charged, because the hydrogen generated in the battery is easy to deflagrate when charging.

9. Do not casually replace the car with a battery with a larger capacity than the original battery. Because the power generation of car generators is fixed. If the battery with a large capacity is replaced, the new battery will be undercharged, the car cannot be started smoothly, and the long-term loss of the battery will shorten the life.

10. When starting the car, the time for each start should not exceed 3 to 5 seconds, and the interval between starting again should not be less than 15 seconds. [1]

Battery is an indispensable part of the car, according to the existing types of batteries in the market can be roughly divided into two types: traditional lead-acid batteries and maintenance-free batteries that have just been popularized in China in recent years. The following is a brief introduction to some issues that need to be paid attention to in the use and maintenance of batteries.

Lead-acid battery is composed of positive and negative plates, separators, shells, electrolytes and terminal pile heads, etc., and the chemical reaction of its discharge is based on the active material of the positive plate and the active substance of the negative plate under the action of electrolyte (dilute sulfuric acid solution), in which the grid frame of the plate is made of lead-antimony alloy. The liquid reduction phenomenon occurs during the use of traditional batteries, which is because the antimony on the grid will pollute the lead on the negative plate, resulting in excessive decomposition of water, and a large amount of oxygen and hydrogen escapes from the positive and negative plates, reducing the electrolyte.

Maintenance-free battery is made of lead-calcium alloy, because the battery uses lead-calcium alloy as a grid frame, so the amount of water decomposition generated during charging is small, the amount of water evaporation is also low, and the shell adopts a sealed structure, and the sulfuric acid gas released is also very little, so it has the advantages of not adding any liquid compared with the traditional battery, less corrosion of the wiring pile head, wire and body, strong overcharge resistance, large starting current, long power storage time, etc., and has been favored in China in recent years.

For wet batteries (lead-acid batteries), the density of the electrolyte should be adjusted accordingly according to different regions and seasons according to the standards. When the electrolyte is deficient, distilled water or special rehydration should be supplemented, and drinking pure water should not be used instead, because pure water contains a variety of trace elements, which will cause adverse effects on the battery. In addition, daily driving should often check whether the small hole on the battery cover is ventilated, if the small hole of the battery cover is blocked, the hydrogen and oxygen produced can not be discharged, when the electrolyte expands, the battery shell will be broken, affecting the battery life. Finally, the positive and negative poles of the battery should be checked frequently for signs of oxidation, and if there is hot water, the wire connection of the battery can be poured frequently.


It is best to buy new products – Guangzhou Municipal Administration for Industry and Commerce reminds consumers that when buying a car battery, they should confirm that the specifications and models, external dimensions, and terminal positions meet the requirements of vehicle installation and use; In addition, the starting capacity index of the dry charged battery of the battery is required for timeliness.

Pay attention to the liquid level – the liquid level of the electrolyte of the car battery should always be kept between max and min, check once a month, and according to the drop of the liquid level, properly supplement distilled water, do not add acid.

Prevent battery overcharge or long-term power loss – overcharge will cause the active material to fall off, power loss will vulcanize the plate, to ensure that the regulator voltage can not be too high or too low. To prevent the battery from discharging with high current for a long time, the starting time of each use should not be greater than 5 seconds, and the interval between two consecutive starts should be 10~15 seconds.

Prevent rust – the oxide and sulfate produced by the battery card must be scraped and coated with petroleum jelly to prevent further rust, and often remove the dust and dirt on the battery cover and the spilled electrolyte to keep it clean and dry to prevent self-discharge.

Driving in cold areas – avoid full discharge so that the electrolyte does not freeze.


The first charge of the battery is called the initial charge, and the initial charge has a great impact on the service life and charge capacity of the battery. If the charge is insufficient, the battery charge capacity is not high and the service life is short; If the charge is excessive, the electrical performance of the battery is good, but it will also shorten its service life, so the new battery should be carefully and carefully charged at the beginning. For ordinary batteries, the initial charge must be carried out according to the charging specifications before use. For dry-charged lead batteries, according to the instruction manual, although it needs to be used during the specified two-year storage period, as long as the specified density of electrolyte is added and shelved for 15min, it can be put into use without charging. However, if the storage period exceeds two years, due to partial oxidation on the plate, in order to improve its charge capacity, supplementary charging should be carried out before use, and it should be charged for 5h-8h before use.

Recharge up

Some drivers often neglect to recharge the battery of the car in use. Because the battery is not completely charged on the car, it is easy to cause vulcanization of the plates; At the same time, the power of charging and discharging in use is unbalanced, if the discharge is greater than the charge and the battery is in a state of power loss for a long time, the battery plate will slowly vulcanize. This chronic vulcanization will continuously reduce the battery charge capacity until the start is weak, greatly shortening the service life of the battery. In order to restore the active materials on the battery plates in time, reduce the vulcanization of the plates, improve the charge capacity of the battery, and extend its service life, the battery in use should be regularly replenished.


The battery is often overcharged, even if the charging current is not large, but the electrolyte “boils” for a long time, in addition to the fine particles on the surface of the active material are easy to fall off, it will also make the grid over-oxidized, causing the active material to loosely peel off from the grid.

Polarity is reversed

Due to the different materials of the positive and negative plates of the battery, in addition to the active substances, the negative plates are also added with barium sulfate, humic acid, carbon black and rosin and other materials to prevent the negative plate from shrinking and oxidizing. In addition, the number of negative plates of each single-cell battery is always one more than the number of positive plates, and the negative plate is slightly thinner than the positive plate. When the initial charge or supplementary charging of the battery is carried out, if the polarity is not paid attention to, the battery will be reversed, so that the positive and negative electrodes almost all become PbSO4 of coarse grains, resulting in insufficient battery charge capacity, can not work normally, and even lead to battery scrapping. Therefore, we must pay attention to polarity when charging, and must not be polarized and reversed

Density “rather small than big”

Some drivers believe that the greater the density of the electrolyte, the lower the discharge degree of the battery, the higher the terminal voltage of the battery, the greater the charge capacity, and can prevent the electrolyte from freezing in winter and freezing the battery, so when adjusting the electrolyte density, not only the original electrolyte density is higher than the specified value, but also in normal use when distilled water is also used to add some electrolytes of different densities, resulting in higher and higher electrolyte density. In fact, this approach is very wrong.

Electrolyte density as an important indicator to measure the degree of battery discharge, is based on the premise that the original electrolyte density has been determined, adding electrolytes of different densities only means to increase the density of the original electrolyte, even if the measured electrolyte density is high, it does not mean that its discharge degree is low; On the one hand, increasing the electrolyte density can increase the electromotive force of the battery, so that the terminal voltage and charge capacity increase, but on the other hand, the electrolyte density is too large, the viscosity of the electrolyte increases, the internal resistance increases, so that its permeability is reduced, but the battery terminal voltage and charge capacity will decrease, and the electrolyte density is too large will also cause plate vulcanization and separator corrosion and other problems, so that the battery service life is reduced.

Neglect to check the height of the electrolyte level

The level of the battery electrolyte should be checked regularly. If the amount of electrolyte is not enough, it will cause the upper part of the plate to be vulcanized in contact with air, reducing the charge capacity of the battery and shortening its service life. Generally, it is checked once in half a month in winter, and high temperature water is easy to evaporate in summer, so it should be checked once a week. The height of the electrolyte level is generally 10mm-15mm higher than the plate protection net. The lower limit is marked, so the electrolyte level as long as it is within the specified range, although there is no need to add distilled water in use, but it should also be combined with regular maintenance of the car to check the electrolyte level height, and should be adjusted when it does not meet the requirements.

Electrolyte level “rather high than low”

When filling the battery with electrolyte or adding distilled water, some drivers often adopt the wrong practice of “rather high than low” for its liquid level. The electrolyte level is too high, and during the driving of the vehicle, the electrolyte is easy to overflow from the vent hole and corrode the pole column, resulting in poor contact or early damage of the pole column. The electrolyte accumulated on the battery cover will connect the positive and negative poles to form a loop, causing the battery to discharge itself. At the same time, the electrolyte level is too high, which will cause excessive pressure inside the battery, and in severe cases, it will also cause the battery to explode.

Feel free to add

In the daily maintenance of the battery, when the electrolyte is insufficient, distilled water should generally be added. However, sometimes the reduction of electrolyte is caused by the breakage of the battery shell, cracks or the leakage of electrolyte due to the lack of tight buckle of the filling hole. And some drivers often do not pay attention to distinguish whether the electrolyte leakage caused by the battery shell damage or other reasons when checking the liquid level, or normal loss, as long as the electrolyte level is reduced, distilled water is added, resulting in a significant decrease in the electrolyte density, so that the battery can not work normally. Some drivers often add distilled water after collecting the car, and the distilled water added can not be fully mixed with the original electrolyte of the battery, so it is easy to cause the battery to discharge itself or damage the battery plate, and in the cold area will also cause local freezing of the battery, affecting the service life of the battery. On the contrary, if distilled water is added to the battery before leaving the car, because the generator constantly charges the battery while the car is running, the added distilled water can be fully mixed with the raw electrolyte in the battery, and the battery performance will not be affected. Therefore, distilled water should be added before leaving the car, rather than adding distilled water after receiving the car.

Feel free to add electrolyte

In the process of automobile use, it is often encountered that after the battery is used for a period of time, there is insufficient power storage, reduced electrolyte density or water shortage. Some drivers do not understand the technical performance of the battery, mistakenly believing that as long as the electrolyte is added, it can restore its working capacity. As everyone knows, this will lead to an increase in the density of the battery electrolyte, which will not only increase its internal resistance and rapidly decrease the terminal voltage, but also reduce the battery charge capacity due to the increase in the viscosity of the electrolyte and the deterioration of the permeability. In the process of use, the density of the electrolyte decreases not sulfuric acid consumption, but with the progress of discharge, the reduction of power storage, the sulfuric acid is gradually transferred to the two plates, and the active material generates lead sulfate, so that the density of the electrolyte decreases, and the more discharge, the smaller the density of the electrolyte. Therefore, when the electrolyte density of the battery decreases, the battery should be replenished and charged in time, and the electrolyte should not be added at will.


Pre-operation check

1. Carry out routine inspection of the vehicle (oil, water, wiring harness, etc.), check the appearance of the battery, and check whether the generator belt and connection line are firm.

2. The rescue vehicle should be parked on the side where the battery of the faulty vehicle is placed, and under special circumstances, it can be parked on the other side or directly in front of the rescued vehicle.

3. Determine the positive and negative poles of the faulty car battery, and check whether there is any poor corrosion contact.

4. When the battery voltage of the faulty vehicle is low, it must be charged for 5-10 minutes using the rescue vehicle. The rescue vehicle engine should be turned off before starting the faulty vehicle.

5. After the faulty car is successfully started, check the power generation (13.5~14.5V) and engine function, and only after 5-10 minutes can the connection be unconnected, and it is forbidden to use the series connection method to connect the battery.


Connect one end of the hitchhiker line to the positive pole of the battery of the faulty vehicle, and the other end of the hitchhiker line is connected to the positive pole of the battery of the rescue vehicle;
Connect the negative hitchhiker wire with the metal parts on the engine block itself or the cylinder block of the faulty car, and connect the other end with the cylinder block or iron part of the rescue vehicle. Do not connect the cable to the negative terminal of the battery (a spark will be generated to ignite the explosive gas escaping from the battery).
The gear is placed in the neutral position and the hand brake is tightened, turning off all electrical equipment of the rescued vehicle.
The rescuer should stand on the side of the rescued vehicle and confirm that there is no one in front of the rescued vehicle. Notify the customer to press the clutch pedal (manual transmission) or brake (automatic transmission), try to start the faulty car, and check whether the connection is false or overheating, if there is any, stop the car immediately, eliminate hidden dangers and then start the test.  Check the power generation of the faulty vehicle
after successful start-up, if it is normal to run the faulty vehicle at high idle speed for 5–10 minutes, take off the negative pole of the rescued vehicle, and then remove the negative pole of the faulty vehicle, remove the positive pole connection of the faulty car and the rescue vehicle in turn, and inform the owner that the faulty car can be extinguished after running for at least 30 minutes, and need to go to the repair shop for inspection.


1. During the ride, do not let the connecting cable contact with the rotating parts in the engine compartment.

2. Do not face the risk of acid burns — the battery

The customer should be informed of the matter

1. Find out the cause of battery loss: Is the electrical equipment turned off? Release current in the stationary state (ordinary models should be less than 10 mA, high-grade should be less than 80 mA), prevent oxidation, is it equipped with anti-theft devices and other electrical equipment?

2. The service life of the battery is two to three years; Non-maintenance-free batteries (electrode pile heads) need to be regularly maintained and checked for electrolyte and battery cover vents

3. After successful start, the generator power generation should be about 13.5~14.5V, so that the engine speed is more than 1500 rpm, running for twenty or thirty minutes, if the power generation is relatively low, the customer must be prompted to the maintenance shop to check the generator and regulator

4. Generator belt tightness (use 5~10kg force to press the belt, the deflection is generally 10~15mm)

5. Battery life

6. Generators, relays, belts

7. Electrical equipment, discharge voltage at rest


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